Web definitions: DOM, Ajax, and more
Even though we’re now a decade into professional web development, there’s still a large amount of terms and phrases being used incorrectly. Long-time readers of my blog know that communication and social interaction are things that I find fascinating, and that I’m on a constant mission to be a clearer communicator in all situations. One of the most frequent sources of confusion in communication is when someone uses a term or phrase thinking that it means one thing but it actually means another. Recently, I’ve seen an uptick of this in web development and so want to lay out some official definitions so that everyone can communicate more clearly.
Document Object Model (DOM)
You may have also heard of DOM Level 0. DOM Level 0 isn’t a true specification, it’s a generic term used to identify the mish-mash of pre-DOM Level 1 ECMAScript bindings for limited element access. DOM Level 0 is considered what appeared in Netscape Navigator 4 and earlier and Internet Explorer 4 and earlier.
The W3C specifications are the core of the DOM, but generally anything that interacts with the document’s structure, allowing either querying or manipulation, is considered part of the DOM. This includes newer specifications such as the Selectors API, which define extensions to the DOM.
The root object of the DOM is the
document object; nothing above that is defined in any of the DOM specifications.
Browser Object Model (BOM)
The browser object model (BOM) is the most mysterious part of the browser API because it is not defined by any specifications at all. The BOM originated in Netscape Navigator, which introduced the
navigator objects that are now ubiquitous in all browsers.
I’ve been accused, in the past, of creating this term since it’s not used very frequently. In reality, the term has been around for a while, and there are several good resources available. In general, the BOM is comprised of everything needed to interact with the browser outside of the document. The BOM represents
screen, as well as any of the properties of each (including
The difficult part about dealing with the BOM is that, without any specifications guiding the implementation, most browsers just copy what has already been implemented in others. Even so, the browser vendors have done a remarkable job at keeping the BOM fairly consistent across implementations. Even though there has been an attempt at standardizing these interfaces, there is no final published recommendation.
Perhaps the most misunderstood term in web development is Ajax.Â In the original article that started the trend, Garrett coined “Ajax” as an abbreviation (not an acronym, so not AJAX) to describe a particular development technique. Put simply, Ajax is the ability to retrieve new data from the server without unloading the current page. It doesn’t necessarily have to do with any particular transport mechanism or any particular request or response format. The DOM enables Ajax because, once new data is retrieved, it can be used to insert the data into the page.
XMLHttpRequest object, often called the XHR object, is the most popular mechanism for achieving Ajax communication. It is just one transport mechanism for Ajax, however, and is not equivalent. Ajax is the technique, XHR is the tool.